Stone is one of the first materials used by humans to build. Globally, this material is abundant. Together with its extraordinary resistance. architectural works mean to use for thousands of years. We recommend installing this material for different surfaces and consulting us with top Civil Engineering Companies in Dubai.
After making these cuts, stones characterize by having a smooth surface. All materials are subject to the wear and tear of time. But the stones have the advantage of having more resistance than most of their competitors. A great example of this are the pyramids of Egypt. We built these with stones such as quartzite, basalt, or limestone. And that, after 5,000 years, are still standing.
The extensive use made of stone materials throughout the world has meant that. Today, we can find thousands of different solutions for stone coatings. To choose this material correctly. We must know the types, formats, and finishes of natural stones. In this post we will focus on the different surface finishes that can achieve on stones.
Split, Sheared or Natural Cut
This finish consists of breaking or splitting the stone. Normally through a plane of weakness using a wedge and mallet. Introducing several chisels, or mechanically with hydraulic machines equipped with wedges or with a shear.
It is the simplest and most rustic finish that we can achieve in a massive and compact stone. Such as granite, marble, or limestone. Cannot achieve this type of finish on softer stones such as sandstone.
Lajada is another system for obtaining stones with a natural finish, such as shearing. The big difference between these two processes is that flaking applies to stones with marked foliation, that is, with plates or flakes such as slate, quartzite or sandstone.
The process is as simple as separating these plates or slabs. With the application of wide chisels, wedges, or hydraulic blades on the shale planes.
The result is 100% natural and surprisingly flat. Although it has certain irregular reliefs and small steps that can vary the thickness of the piece from one end to the other. The resulting surface is rough and, if it contains micaceous minerals, it will have a certain shine.
After having made a natural cut to the stone, different manual tools use. Such as a chisel, a pointer, or a chisel to, based on accurate blows, fracture the stone. Making flakes or splinters jump and allowing the desired volume to give to the piece.
As a result, we obtain a stone with a natural and rustic appearance. With an irregular appearance similar to that of the natural cut. But with a greater relief and a sharper surface.
If cut Sawing is the process by which a block of stone is with precision. Following planes that form flat plates of a minimum of 2cm. This cut usually precedes the rest of the treatments that we talk about in this list. But sometimes places the stones directly with their sawn appearance.
After making these cuts, stones characterize by having a smooth surface. But rough and porous, with a matt and whitish finish. Sometimes, especially if diamond strips not use. The tools used scratch the stone, leaving their mark on the surface in the form of parallel grooves.
It is one of the most traditional methods of treating stone surfaces and consists of hitting the stone, previously shaped, with a bush hammer, a mallet with a steel head that contains pyramidal teeth. This process can be manual or with pneumatic hammers, and depending on the size and number of teeth of the hammer, as well as the force and number of blows, we will obtain a finer or thicker bush hammer.
Bush Hammered Granite
The result of this treatment is a rough surface with small holes between 1 and 3 millimeters in depth and diameter, evenly distributed over the entire surface of the stone. Bush hammering also gives a lighter tone than natural cutting processes.
Can carry out this treatment on all types of stones. And is very similar to bush hammering, except that instead of using a mallet to hit and texture the stone. On this occasion, use a sandblast projected by pressurized air. This process can only carry out in the factory. And use it mainly in marble and granite.
As a result of this process, we obtain a very regular surface that has holes with depths of between 1.5 to 3.5 thousandths of a millimeter. Depending on the power of the jet, the type of sand and the initial state of the stone. It can obtain different roughness and gloss. Although sandblasted surfaces are usually matt.
Can apply this treatment to any previously flattened stone. Although especially use it on not very hard masonry stones. The process is usually manual, although there are also automatic processes to achieve this finish. And it consists of making elongated and parallel incisions (usually at 45º) with a pick or pointer.
The piece obtained is rough, rocky and of a very rustic appearance. And easily identified thanks to the parallel notches on its surface. The tone resulting from this process is lighter than that of the starting stone.
This is a well-known process in stones with high internal cohesion, such as marble, granite, or onyx. Achieve the brilliant finish by passing the stone to machines with smaller grit abrasive wheels at each pass. This process causes the pores to minimize. Almost closed, which means greater resistance to external agents, but greater slipperiness when wet.
Polishing gives a shiny finish (sometimes almost mirror-like) and highlights the texture of the chosen stone, leaving it flat and free of marks. When make a polished stone floor. Recommend to carry out the polishing process on site. Since, if it done in the factory, it cannot guarantee that once all the pieces place there will be no steps between them.
The honing process is almost identical to that of polishing. As in the previous process, machines use, whether manual or automatic. Which over several passes leave the stone flat and free of marks. It is also a way to highlight the texture and color of the material. But without reaching the level of polishing.
The difference between polished and honed is that the latter has no shine. The surface obtained is matte. Honing is actually the step prior to achieving shine in the polishing process. Because this process is less abrasive than polishing. Applied it to stones with a lower degree of crystallization, such as limestone and sandstone.
This finish is exclusive to granite and must do after sawing. It consists of causing a thermal shock through the use of oxyacetylene burners at more than 2,500º C. Applying the flame at an angle of 45º with respect to the surface of the stone. Which causes part of the grain to detach.
Thermal shock loosens the granite, leaving a course, rough, glassy surface. This treatment allows us to obtain a rustic appearance. In the stone without appreciably altering the color or natural stains of the granite.
Achieve that treatment with the use of discs and brushes of different granulometries. These brushings give the stone a rough texture that imitates natural wear, giving the feeling of being aged.
This finish enhances the natural color of the stone and despite the roughness. The final surface is smooth. The end result has a slight natural-looking sheen.
The satin effect and the aged effect are very similar. Carry out both processes based on brushing. That leaves a rough and smooth surface at the same time. The difference is that satin has a smoother, glossier finish that resembles leather.
This finishing method can only apply to stones with somewhat crumbly and loosely compacted surfaces, such as soft sandstone. The process consists of rubbing sandpaper or manual scrapers against the surface. Or using rotary head abrasive machines that eliminate the small imperfections. And steps that result from cutting the stone.
The surface obtained is flat and matt, and has a natural appearance.
Making small variations to the treatments mentioned in this post. We can obtain some other finishes such as those shown in the following images.
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