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Manufacturing of semiconductors in India

by Henry Cruise

India is the next big thing for chipmakers, with a boom in local manufacturing and government incentives luring global giants to set up shop in the country. Manufacturers have been able to reduce costs by as much as 40 percent by building plants there instead of in China, which has traditionally been the world’s capital for semiconductor manufacturing. The new facilities are expected to provide a boost to India’s economy and create jobs in the country.

Manufacturing of semiconductors

Manufacturing semiconductors is a complex process requiring hundreds of precisely controlled steps that result in patterned layers of various materials built one on top of another. A photolithographic “printing” process is used to form a chip’s circuit patterns on a silicon surface.

Semiconductor manufacturing in India starts with one of the most common elements on earth, silicon. Silicon is found in abundance in sand, but before it is used in semiconductor manufacturing it is refined to be virtually 100% pure.

Silicon in its more common crystalline form is a bad conductor, however, it can be doped with trace amounts of other elements to create an N-type semiconductor or P-type semiconductor. These are sometimes referred to as extrinsic semiconductors because they have been altered from their pure form.

N-type semiconductors are created by adding trace amounts of elements such as arsenic or phosphorous to the melted silicon. Electrons are negatively charged particles, and these elements add extra electrons to the silicon lattice giving it an excess negative charge. N-type semiconductors are used as the basis for all modern transistors and microchips, along with P-type semiconductors.

Eligibility and Fiscal support from the Government of India


Starting a Semiconductor Manufacturing Plant in India

There are two ways to start a Semiconductor Manufacturing Plant in India. One is to start your own plant with the help of government policies and the other is to acquire a semiconductor manufacturing plant in India that is available for sale. If you want to start your own plant, then you should have a sound business plan in place to execute the same. You can take advice from experts who have already started their own semiconductor manufacturing units in India. The main things that you will require are land, funding, and manpower. Manpower and funding will be required in bulk so you should be prepared for that.

Another way, there is a huge opportunity in India to set up semiconductor manufacturing plants, as the Indian government offers a variety of funding options and other incentives to attract investors. Foreign companies that set up shop in India receive benefits, such as tax exemptions for up to eight years, exemption from dividend distribution taxes, and no cap on foreign direct investment (FDI). The government also offers export-oriented incentives that range from duty-free imports of capital equipment to income tax holidays..

The process of semiconductor manufacturing is shown below:

The silicon wafer is produced by slicing it off a silicon crystal ingot. The wafer goes through a series of cleaning steps and then through an oxidation furnace to grow a layer of oxide on the surface. This oxide layer will be used later in the process as an etch stop layer.

Next, the photolithography step creates circuit patterns on the wafer. To do this, the wafer is coated with a light-sensitive material called a photoresist. A mask with the desired circuit pattern is placed over the wafer and light is shone through it to expose some areas of photoresist. The exposed photoresist is removed, leaving circuit patterns on the wafer where silicon is exposed. The exposed silicon can now be etched away using various etching techniques, such as dry plasma etching or wet chemical etching. For example, an ion milling machine can be used to remove silicon from the wafer by bombarding it with ions.

After this step, another oxidation step grows another insulating layer of oxide at the top of silicon transistors to electrically isolate them from one another. Then new regions of dopant are implanted into different layers of silicon using ion implantation.

Corpseed will help you in Legal Compliances

The industry is highly capital-intensive and requires a high level of technical expertise in order to produce cutting-edge technology at a low cost. As a result, it has never been easy for companies to enter this sector and make a profit.  Corpseed is one of the best semiconductor manufacturing legal service providers in India. We provide low-cost, high-quality, and reliable services that lead to a win-win situation for our customers. We have a team of qualified and experienced professionals who take care of each and every customer requirement with utmost precision.

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