Li-ion batteries can provide high performance energy backup in uninterruptible power supplies (UPS). In data centers, it provides cost savings and sustainability. Also, they are safe as long as you choose the correct specification for its application and affordable prices at Dry Battery Price in Pakistan.
When there is a power outage. Backup batteries keep the data center running until the UPS can have an alternate power source. Such as a diesel generator. To avoid serious damage to the company and its reputation. The reliability and performance of the battery is essential. Li-ion batteries are perfect for this essential function. As it shows solid superiority over VRLA (Valve Regulated Lead Acid) batteries.
Electrochemistry Of Batteries
An important point to note first of all is that ‘Li-ion’ is an umbrella term for a whole family of batteries. Whose electrochemistry varies greatly. Specifying the most appropriate chemistry, design, and configuration. Is the key to achieving optimal battery characteristics for each application. For data centers, this includes maximizing security.
Why Is Li-Ion Better?
Li – ion technology is more reliable and offers much higher performance. Its total cost of ownership (TCO) is lower, thanks to the combination of long life, minimal maintenance, high energy efficiency and tolerance to higher temperatures. By comparison, the reliability and lifespan of VRLA batteries drastically reduce at high temperatures. Which in turn means more cooling. With higher power consumption and more CO2 emissions.
Can Rapidly Discharge Power
High energy density also saves more on assets and infrastructure. When needed, they rapidly discharge power. To meet the needs of the UPS. Between cuts, they charge quickly. Ready for the next emergency. Since its electronic monitoring and management systems easily integrate into the building. The operators are fully aware of its status and availability.
At all times, you can be sure of your state of charge (SOC). And remaining life, also known as state of health (SOH). Its electronics also allow easy scalability and optimization for the application. The voltage, power, and energy of a device.
Damage or misuse can short-circuit a Li-ion cell, which can cause a chain reaction, known as thermal drift. This produces a large discharge of heat which, if it spreads to neighboring cells, can start their decomposition, and release hot flammable gases. The fire of a battery energy storage system in Arizona in 2019 is among those widely reported as thermal runaway incidents.
And TV host Richard Hammond’s escape from a burning car in 2017 while filming from The Grand Tour for Amazon. It is important to note that the specification of the Li-ion battery in both cases was different from that recommended for data centers.
To Function in Temperatures
While we talk about Li-ion batteries. The term actually encompasses a whole family of chemicals with different characteristics. Such as lifespan. Power and energy density, as well as function at a variety of temperatures. We can select these chemicals and even blended to fine tune the balance of these properties.
Named For Cathode Material Metal Oxides
The capacity of a battery to manage performance and contain heat. Seriously influenced by its mechanical, electrical, and electronic design. There are two main types of Li-ion batteries, named according to their cathode material: metal oxides and iron phosphate.
Another group, with titanate anode material. Uses in high power applications with frequent charge and discharge cycles. Such as railway traction or underground mining vehicles. Metal oxides, including nickel-lithium-cobalt aluminum oxide (NCA).
Ideal In Electric Vehicles
They are ideal in electric vehicles. For example, since their chemistry is very active. But the drawback is that, if there is a lack of thermal control. They release oxygen. This can fuel the fire, potentially allowing temperatures to reach 800 or even 1,000°C. And because they release oxygen, oxygen-reduced fire suppression systems and advanced extinguishing agents like fluor ketones.
They are not effective in this situation. Iron phosphates, such as Lithium Iron Phosphate (LFP) and Saft’s own patented Super Lithium Iron Phosphate (SLFP) technology, are inherently much safer. The oxygen in its phosphate molecules is tightly bound, and does not release in combustion.
Lower Energy Density
This limits potential temperatures in the event of thermal runaway to around 200 to 250°C, making propagation between cells unlikely. The downside is lower energy density (approximately 30% less), and lower cell voltage, compared to metal oxides, but they are ideal where safety is critical.
They also offer long life, even at high temperatures. And good discharge/recharge cycle capability. Are inherently much safer. The oxygen in its phosphate molecules is tightly bound, and does not release in combustion.
Such as Lithium Iron Phosphate (LFP) and Saft’s own patented Super Lithium Iron Phosphate (SLFP) technology. Are inherently much safer. The oxygen in its phosphate molecules is tightly bound. And does not release in combustion.
What Role Does Battery Management Play in Security?
Apart from their electrochemistry, there are physical differences between Li-ion battery systems that affect their properties. Each Li-ion battery consists of a series of cells, together with an electrical circuit to the battery management system (BMS), inside a protective case.
The BMS is critically important to optimizing safety, reliability, and total cost of ownership
A good BMS will monitor both the voltage on each individual cell and the indicator of its state of charge, state of health and safe conditions. By controlling charge and discharge at the cell level, evens out battery temperatures to maximize longevity, as temperature is closely related to battery aging.
You should also monitor and manage the temperature of the power connections, which can be higher than the cell temperature during discharge. Each cabinet has a Battery Management Module (BMM) to monitor multiple battery modules. However, during scaling, the BMS can combine multiple BMMs in multiple cabinets to establish a main battery management module (MBMM), which regulates the entire system.
What UL And IEC Safety Certification Applies?
The IFC 2018 and NFPA 855 international standards for fire safety in buildings seek to reduce risk by limiting the energy content of Li-ion batteries to 20 kWh per system, or 600 kWh per installation. They also require an air space of about one meter between cabinets. However, many data center operators require larger systems. Listing for unlimited energy content, with no gaps, can achieve by passing rigorous UL 9540A testing for thermal runaway potential.
When tested with some metal oxide systems, it reports in UL 9540A test records that they will experience cell-to-cell and module-to-module heat spread, flames, thermal runaway, and even expulsion of small internal components from the cells.
How Are UPS Batteries Different from Other Applications?
Another point is that, ideally, Li-ion battery systems used for data center UPS applications, they should design specifically for that purpose. Its main purpose is very different from that of a battery energy storage system (BESS), for example. BESS batteries are revenue-generating assets that must protect. So, your BMS will prevent them from fully discharges, a state from which Li-ion batteries cannot recover.
However, the batteries in a data center UPS are there to protect the business by ensuring continuity of power supply. If necessary, the BMS will allow a full discharge for a few extra vital seconds of power in an emergency, even if it means sacrificing the battery. Backup and security should not compromise.
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